Thinking in English

Reading is important, because many people said that reading is a window of world. So, in this assignment which have the common aim of improving the reading for collage/student who are studying english for educational or academic reasons. It is proposed that reading activities reflect the specific approaches can be classified as either psychological,linguistic, content,and orientated. The characteristic of each of these approaches is presented and illustrated with exercises from published course. Some of the strengths and weakness of each approach are discuss.

AIM OF READING COURSES

Following the selection of aims and objective testifies           :

“Reading to help students recognize,understand and enjoy a wide variety of text

Types in English. “ (Reasons for reading,1979)

“ Reading to assist the non-native speaker of English studying in the medium of English and to comprehend more fully material of the kind and may be required to read”.( Reading comprehension course: selected strategies,1982).

“ A reading selection is made of topics of general interest and relevance to learner at this level.

Few English speakers share of the accessibility of reading in other language, and judging from the popularity of reading courses. Many foreign learners of English also feel less that confident about reading English and make it as pleasures of reading literature.

PART OF READING            :

  • The psychological approach
  • Linguistic approach
  • The content-orientated approach
  • The pedagogically – orientated approach
  1. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

Course which take the psychological approach to reading development claim to provide exercise or activities which train natural reading process and focus on take place in the mind of reader.

The majority of the exercise in thinking in English of reading skill are design to practice the psychological process specified by the author rather than drawing the learner’s attention to the meaning of the twenty reading text.

PROCESS OF READING

  • Understanding the writer implication
  • Making inferences
  • Realizing the information
  • Evaluating the passage
  1. LINGUISTIC APPROACH

While the psychological approach focuses on the words and the sentences of the reading passage the assumption is that if the learners can handle linguistic feature of the text efficiently reading ability will be improved and exclusively linguistically orientated, this approach often influences a large proportion of the activities in a reading course.

 

  1. THE CONTENT – ORIENTATED APPROACHED

The content – orientated approach is founded on the view that the purpose inherent in a particular act of reading is an essential feature and make the reader believe that a specific purpose for reading a would be goal – directed and efficient.

 

  1. THE PEDAGOGICALLY – ORIENTATED APPROACH

Pedagogic is a part of all good course design and all of published courses that mantion so far have pedagogic strengths in that theirs authors have corsidered such matters the length of the time students might wish to spend on a given accalvity, the entertaint ment quality of the activities and the interest value of the text.

According to the view, readers who are given some choice in the selection of their own reading materials and who can develop at their own rats will be more successful readers than those whose programme of study in directed by the teacher, the course book or administrator.

 

EVALUATING APPROACHES TO READING DEVELOPMENT

For approaches to the design of reading course have been identified and each of these approaches has its own characteristic.

The table below summarizes the focus of each approach:

ORIENTATED FOCUS TRAINING APPROACH
Psychological The reader The psychological process
Linguistics The language of the text Linguistic knowledge
Content Meaning and use Reading for a purpose
Pedagogic Individual access Personal control

 

Whatever approach or selected, all good reading course must require the student to spend must of the time engaged in reading. It is cautionary to remember that any success that bright be claimed for a particular philosophy might be more simply attributed to the activity of reading.

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Laughter is The Best Medicine

Laughter is the Best Medicine

Humor is infectious. The sound of roaring laughter is far more contagious than any cough, sniffle, or sneeze. When laughter is shared, it binds people together and increases happiness and intimacy. Laughter also triggers healthy physical changes in the body. Humor and laughter strengthen your immune system, boost your energy, diminish pain, and protect you from the damaging effects of stress. Best of all, this priceless medicine is fun, free, and easy to use. (Introduction)

Laughter is strong medicine for mind and body

“Your sense of humor is one of the most powerful tools you have to make certain that your daily mood and emotional state support good health.”

~ Paul E. McGhee, Ph.D.

Laughter is a powerful antidote to stress, pain, and conflict. Nothing works faster or more dependably to bring your mind and body back into balance than a good laugh. Humor lightens your burdens, inspires hopes, connects you to others, and keeps you grounded, focused, and alert.

With so much power to heal and renew, the ability to laugh easily and frequently is a tremendous resource for surmounting problems, enhancing your relationships, and supporting both physical and emotional health. (Main Idea)

Laughter is good for your health

  • Laughter relaxes the whole body. A good, hearty laugh relieves physical tension and stress, leaving your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after.
  • Laughter boosts the immune system. Laughter decreases stress hormones and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease.
  • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. Endorphins promote an overall sense of well-being and can even temporarily relieve pain.
  • Laughter protects the heart. Laughter improves the function of blood vessels and increases blood flow, which can help protect you against a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.

Laughter and humor help you stay emotionally healthy

Laughter makes you feel good. And the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter subsides. Humor helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

More than just a respite from sadness and pain, laughter gives you the courage and strength to find new sources of meaning and hope. Even in the most difficult of times, a laugh–or even simply a smile–can go a long way toward making you feel better. And laughter really is contagious—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun.

The social benefits of humor and laughter

Humor and playful communication strengthen our relationships by triggering positive feelings and fostering emotional connection. When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is created. This bond acts as a strong buffer against stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

Laughing with others is more powerful than laughing alone

Creating opportunities to laugh

  • Watch a funny movie or TV show.
  • Go to a comedy club.
  • Read the funny pages.
  • Seek out funny people.
  • Share a good joke or a funny story.
  • Check out your bookstore’s humor section.
  • Host game night with friends.
  • Play with a pet.
  • Go to a “laughter yoga” class.
  • Goof around with children.
  • Do something silly.
  • Make time for fun activities (e.g. bowling, miniature golfing, karaoke). (Thesis and Arguments)

Shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting. All emotional sharing builds strong and lasting relationship bonds, but sharing laughter and play also adds joy, vitality, and resilience. And humor is a powerful and effective way to heal resentments, disagreements, and hurts. Laughter unites people during difficult times.

Incorporating more humor and play into your daily interactions can improve the quality of your love relationships— as well as your connections with co-workers, family members, and friends. Using humor and laughter in relationships allows you to:

  • Be more spontaneous. Humor gets you out of your head and away from your troubles.
  • Let go of defensiveness. Laughter helps you forget judgments, criticisms, and doubts.
  • Release inhibitions. Your fear of holding back and holding on are set aside.
  • Express your true feelings. Deeply felt emotions are allowed to rise to the surface.

 Bringing more humor and laughter into your life

Want to bring the fun? Get a pet…

Most of us have experienced the joy of playing with a furry friend, and pets are a rewarding way to bring more laughter and joy into your life. But did you know that having a pet is also good for your mental and physical health? Studies show that pets can protect you depression, stress, and even heart disease. (Thesis and Arguments)

Laughter is your birthright, a natural part of life that is innate and inborn. Infants begin smiling during the first weeks of life and laugh out loud within months of being born. Even if you did not grow up in a household where laughter was a common sound, you can learn to laugh at any stage of life.

Begin by setting aside special times to seek out humor and laughter, as you might with working out, and build from there. Eventually, you’ll want to incorporate humor and laughter into the fabric of your life, finding it naturally in everything you do.

Here are some ways to start:

  • Smile. Smiling is the beginning of laughter. Like laughter, it’s contagious. Pioneers in “laugh therapy,” find it’s possible to laugh without even experiencing a funny event. The same holds for smiling. When you look at someone or see something even mildly pleasing, practice smiling.
  • Count your blessings. Literally make a list. The simple act of considering the good things in your life will distance you from negative thoughts that are a barrier to humor and laughter. When you’re in a state of sadness, you have further to travel to get to humor and laughter.
  • When you hear laughter, move toward it. Sometimes humor and laughter are private, a shared joke among a small group, but usually not. More often, people are very happy to share something funny because it gives them an opportunity to laugh again and feed off the humor you find in it. When you hear laughter, seek it out and ask, “What’s funny?”
  • Spend time with fun, playful people. These are people who laugh easily–both at themselves and at life’s absurdities–and who routinely find the humor in everyday events. Their playful point of view and laughter are contagious.
  • Bring humor into conversations. Ask people, “What’s the funniest thing that happened to you today? This week? In your life?”

Laugh is priceless medicine that everyone can do. It helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss. Also, it can make your life colorful, good in relation, and ageless. So, we can try to start, like smile, count your blessing, spend your life with fun, enjoy your life, and make sense of humor in your conversation daily.

Source : http://www.helpguide.org/life/humor_laughter_health.htm

Transitions

Transitions function to connect one idea to another either between sentences or between paragraphs. They are signals that help readers follow the direction of the writer’s thoughts. The lists below categorizes transitional words and phrases according what they signify. Note that certain transitions appear on more than one list.

SOME TRANSITION WORDS AND PHRASES ACCORDING TO MEANING

ADDING CONTRASTING CONCLUDING
additionally
also
besides
further
furthermore
in addition
in the same way
likewise
moreover
similarly
at any rate
even so
however
in contrast
in spite of that
instead
nevertheless
on the contrary
on the other hand
otherwise
still
accordingly
as a result
as a/in consequence
consequently
in conclusion
for this reason
hence
therefore
thus
to conclude
COMPARING ADDING ADDITIONAL DETAIL SUMMARIZING
by comparison
equally
in the same way
likewise
similarly
as an illustration
for example
for instance
indeed
in fact
in other words
in particular
specifically
that is
briefly
in a word
in brief
in short
in summary
to summarize

 

INDICATING SEQUENCE (LOGICAL) EXPRESSING OPINION
first(ly), second(ly), third(ly)…
next
finally
last(ly)
then
above all
in conclusion
to illustrate
that is
actually
apparently
certainly
(un)fortunately
of course
undoubtedly

INDICATING SEQUENCE IN TIME

SAME TIME EARLIER TIME NOW LATER TIME
at the same time
concurrently
simultaneously
before that
earlier
first
formerly
previously
at this time
at present
now
nowadays
these days
after that
afterwards
in the future
later
next
soon
subsequently
then

When using transitions, keep in mind that there are subtle differences between transitional words and phrases on the same list. If you are unsure about the precise meaning of a particular word or phrase, consult your dictionary or ask your teacher. Also, while transitions do help to connect ideas in an essay, too many transitions can make writing seen overly formal or stilted. Certain transitions such as hence, moreover, thus, and subsequently may make your writing sound too formal or artificial, which can be distracting to a reader. Formal transitions should be avoided in personal writing and used judiciously even in formal writing.
TRANSITION EXAMPLE

Underline any transitional words or phrases in the following passages. Fill in the spaces below each passage with the transitions you find and identify what kind of signal they give.

A Chinese Housewife

In Chinese society a housewife should be thrifty in order to help her husband tosupport the family. First of all, she does her housework by herselfand doesn’t hire a maid to work with her. Secondly, when she goes shopping, she only spends money on daily necessities and not on junk food. The food which she buys should be healthy food and should not cost too much money. Finally, she can’t buy clothes often except when she has to go to a banquet. Mostly she makes her clothes herself and wears them at home. In this way, she saves money.

Transition                                     Signal

__________________                             __________________

__________________                             __________________

__________________                              __________________

__________________                             __________________

__________________                             __________________

Stated and Ustated Detail Question

Besides knowledge about kinds of text and its grammatical unsure, the ability for applying reading strategy also must be owned in order to comprehend the meaning from a text. There are many kinds of question which usually are given (dalam menguji) ability of reading comprehension, one of them is stated and unstated detail question.

Unstated Detail Question

Unstated detail question is unexpressed terms of the agreement/things left unsaid/unspoken agreement/the action is clear but the reason remains unstated in question. How to identify the question :

– Which of the following is not stated……?

– Which of the following is not mentioned…….?

– Which of the following is not discussed……..?

– All of the following are true except…..

 

We should note that there are two kinds of answer to this type of question

1. There are three true answers and one that is not true according to the passage, or

2. There are three true answers and one is not mentioned in the passage.

 

Because it’s not mentioned in the text, we have to :

1. Choose a key word in the question.

2. Scan the appropriate place in the passage for key word (or related idea).

3. Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea carefully.

4. Look for answers that are definitely true according to the passage.Eliminate those answers.

5. Choose the answer that is not true or not discussed in the passage.

 

Example
The passage:

The Florida Keys are a beautiful chain of almost 1,000 coral and limestone islands These islands form an arc that heads first southwest and then west from the mainland. U.S. Highway 1, called the Overseas Highway connects the main islands in the chain. On this highway, it is necessary to cross 42 bridges over the ocean to cover the 159 miles from Miami on the mainland, to Key West the farthest island on the highway and the southernmost city in the United States.

(C) The Florida Keys are in the shape of an arc.
(D) The Florida Keys are not all inhabited.

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about U.S. Highway 1?

(A) It is also known as the Overseas Highway
(B) It joins all of the islands in the Florida Keys.
(C) It has more than 40 bridges
(D) It connects Miami and Key West

Analysis:

The first question asks for the one answer that is not mentioned about the Florida Keys. The passage states that the Florida Keys are a chain (answer A) with coral and limestone (answer B) in the shape of an arc (answer C), so these answers are not correct. The best answer is therefore answer (D). The passage does not discuss whether or not the keys are all inhabited.

 

The second question asks for the answer that is not true about U.S. Highway 1. The passage states that it is called the Overseas Highway (answer A), that it has 42 bridges (answer C), and that it cover(s) the 159 miles from Miami. . . to Key West (answer D), so these answers are not correct. The best answer is answer (B). The passage states that the Overseas Highway connects the main islands in the chain, so it does not connect all of the islands.

Jakes Town

I have returned to my hometown of Wilson Creek after an absence of 10 years.

So many things have changed around here. When I left Wilson Creek, there was a small pond on the right as you left town. They have filled in this pond and they have built a large shopping mall there. A new post office has also been built just across from my old school.

There is a baseball stadium on the outskirts of Wilson Creek which has been changed completely. They have now added a new stand where probably a few thousand people could sit. It looks really great.

The biggest changes have taken place in the downtown area. They have pedestrianised the centre and you can’t drive there anymore. A European-style fountain has been built and some benches have also been added along with a grassy area and a new street cafe.

My street looks just the same as it always has but a public library has been built in the next street along. There used to be a great park there but they have cut down all the trees which is a pity. The library now has a large green area in front of it but it’s not the same as when the park was there.

Another improvement is the number of new restaurants that have opened in Wilson Creek. A Chinese and an Italian restaurant have opened in the town centre and a Mexican restaurant has opened near my home. Which is where I am going tonight!

Nelson Mandela

Biography of Nelson Mandela

 

Nelson Mandela changed South Africa and the world through his extraordinary work as a civil rights activist, non-violent revolutionary, and leader who shaped a new South Africa.

Mandela’s Youth

Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in a rural village in the Transkei region of South Africa.  His name means “troublemaker” in the Xhosa language. A teacher at a Christian mission school later gave him the name Nelson. Mandela rose from a humble village of mud huts into a comfortable life as the adopted son of a Tembu chief.

As a young man, Mandela attended university, but was dismissed because he took part in a student protest, his first act of civil rights activism. In the 1940s, Mandela entered into the turbulent world of South African racial politics by joining in the liberation movement known as the African National Congress (A.N.C).

Mandela’s Activism and Imprisonment

Mandela was a founding member of the African National Congress’s Youth League and later become second-in-command. Through this group, Mandela was able to take organized political action against apartheid. In the 1950s, he was the leader of the African National Congress. The South African government considered him an enemy.

In 1963, the government put Mandela on trial for treason, condemning him to a lifetime sentence. Throughout his imprisonment, Mandela continued his work to end apartheid by sending secret messages from his cell on Robben Island.

Leader of a New South Africa

On February 2, 1990, 27 years after Mandela was imprisoned, South Africa’s president Frederik Willem de Klerk removed the ban on the A.N.C and released Mandela. The two men had held meetings about his release while Mandela was in prison. Three years later, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Mandela used the joint award to show forgiveness, and that reconciliation was possible in the deeply politically and racially divided South Africa.

In 1994, Mandela became South Africa’s first democratically elected president. He focused his presidency on building peace and unity in his country. In 1999, at the end of his term as president, Mandela chose not to seek re-election. He remained politically active, however, working to promote peace throughout Africa and to draw attention to social injustice and the spread of HIV and AIDS.

He was married three times and had six children and 17 grandchildren.

In 2009, an abridged version of Mandela’s 1995 autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, was published for children. In that same year, the United Nations declared his birthday as Nelson Mandela International Day.