Human Trafficking and Sex Exploitation

Women and girls are more commonly trafficked into the sex industry, however the trafficking of boys or men for sexual exploitation is largely under-reported. This is due to a combination of reasons including the more hidden nature of male prostitution; cultural and gendered stereotypes that do not consider it possible for men to be sexually exploited and inadequate legal systems and reporting frameworks that may not identify victims correctly. In many cases, girls and women who think they are going to work as domestic help or in restaurants, bars and karaoke venues, are tricked or forced into sex work. People may also choose to work in the sex industry but end up in an exploitative situation that they did not agree to. Many people who travel to find work or to study are tricked into the industry. This is often because they are culturally isolated and are not fully aware of their rights, so they become more vulnerable to exploitation.

Sex trafficking can occur in every country in the world. People who have limited access to protection, education or opportunities to make money are more vulnerable to being exploited. Many victims are found in countries where there is a large pool of unskilled labour and the labour protection system is weak. However, victims are also found in developed countries – many of who are migrants who may have travelled to pursue work or education opportunities and have been tricked or forced into exploitative situations. It is impossible to accurately assess how many people are victims of sex trafficking worldwide. It is a hidden crime and even if victims have the opportunity to report the abuses, in many cases, they will not do so out of fear of their traffickers or cultural shame. Frontline law enforcement authorities are also not always trained in identifying potential victims. For example, in a country where prostitution is illegal, people may be considered guilty of being sex workers, rather than as victims of trafficking. Trafficking for sexual exploitation turns individuals into commodities which dehumanises them. It occurs partially due to the demand for prostitution and other forms of commercial sexual practices that traffickers seek to supply. In certain cultures virginity is highly prized and ignorance and myths about HIV and AIDS transmission and cures have contributed to the demand for sex with young girls. Gender inequality contributes to high numbers of women being trafficked into the sex industry.

As sex trafficking is often a transnational crime, governments and organisations working across national boundaries, such as the United Nations and World Vision, must work together throughout the trafficking cycle. This includes collaboration to prevent potentially vulnerable individuals from becoming exploited; training law enforcement and other officials to identify and protect victims; prosecuting traffickers and their accomplices; securing justice for victims; and playing an active part in a global movement for the promotion and protection of human rights, especially for children.

Belarusia Free Visa for Indonesia Citizen

In the last 2 years, the government’s policy that states will provide free visas to hundreds of countries reap the pros and cons. President jokowi created this policy to increase foreign exchange through the tourism sector. He believes with this policy, then the tourists from abroad will come to vacation in Indonesia.

Two-year rule of President Jokowi, many tourism programs do. Visa-free policy is considered effective to add foreign tourists. Related to the performance of tourism, the spotlight is visa-free policy and Tourism Special Economic Zone. With visa-free policy for the tourists from 169 countries are already under way, there was an increase of 5-20 percent of foreign tourists visit.

Now, this policy has been given to 169 countries. Not only Indonesia who have imposed this policy, but there are some countries that also make this policy, as countries as Malaysia, Singapore and others.

This policy should have the principle of “reciprocity”, which is where this principle states that the principle of reciprocity from countries that Indonesia provide visa-free. But in reality, not all of the 169 countries who provide free visas to Indonesia.

Starting next month, certainly February 12 2017 this Indonesian citizens can enjoy visa-free facilities, an Indonesian citizen who visited Belarus, can come into the country without a visa This was conveyed by Indonesian ambassador to Belarus Vladimir Lopato-Zagorsky.

the decision to grant visa-free facility is provided by the government of Belarus after the approach taken by the Indonesian government three years ago, but government of Belarus just give 5 days The Government of Belarus has so far only provide visa-free facility for only five days. Why is that?.

Because Belarus is not a big country. Most tourists only stay in Belarus for 3-5 days. Two days in Minsk and the rest out of the city. Belarus is quite unique position in Eastern Europe allows the tourists, including from Indonesia could travel to some countries in europe.

Germany, welcoming migrants

Germany can sustain up to 500,000 or more new asylum-seeker every year, as we know that the people from war-torn countries across the Middle East and Africa are making their way to Europe to chase the promise of a better life. While Germany accepts many asylum-seeker, not every country would do the same. There are pros and cons on welcoming refugees to the country. The government welcomes the refugees but some anti-immigration groups argue that they are a drain on a country’s economy, as they seek to avail themselves of government services before contributing to the state themselves. Here are two benefits why Germany is welcoming migrants with open arms, first the economy growth of the country, second the amount of human resources.

First, the economy growth. The 6.6 million people living in Germany with foreign passports paid $4,127 more in taxes and social security on average than they took in social benefits in 2012–generating a surplus of 22 billion euros that year, according to one report. German officials are hopeful that, in the long run, this new flood of refugees could result in a similar economic gain. German Labour minister, Andrea Nahles, admitted that Germany will profit from this too, because Germany need immigrants.

Second, the amount of human resources. Whether or not this new wave of migrants helps or hinders Germany’s economy depends heavily on the skillsets they bring. Many of Germany’s current working foreigners are high-skilled workers from other European countries like Greece. In contrast, the migrants flooding into Germany right now may not be as well-trained. That means German policymakers have to do a very good job of taking unskilled workers and incorporating them into the German labour force in a way that makes sense for long-term growth, whether that’s by making them to take low-skilled jobs or training them to do higher-level work.

In Conclusion, As we know that the people from war-torn countries across the Middle East and Africa are making their way to Europe to chase the promise of a better life. The benefits of why Germany is welcoming migrants with open arms are for the economy and human resources they need. By welcoming the migrants, Germany hopes they could do better on their economy instead having migrants being a drain on a country’s economy. Also, the amount of human resources that come could be a cheap paid-workers, they need jobs to stay alive, with great skills. The German economy needs to attract 1.5 million skilled migrants to stabilize the state pension system as more Germans retire. That’s why they take low-skilled jobs or training them to do higher-level work as the solution of German retire.

Thinking in English

Reading is important, because many people said that reading is a window of world. So, in this assignment which have the common aim of improving the reading for collage/student who are studying english for educational or academic reasons. It is proposed that reading activities reflect the specific approaches can be classified as either psychological,linguistic, content,and orientated. The characteristic of each of these approaches is presented and illustrated with exercises from published course. Some of the strengths and weakness of each approach are discuss.


Following the selection of aims and objective testifies           :

“Reading to help students recognize,understand and enjoy a wide variety of text

Types in English. “ (Reasons for reading,1979)

“ Reading to assist the non-native speaker of English studying in the medium of English and to comprehend more fully material of the kind and may be required to read”.( Reading comprehension course: selected strategies,1982).

“ A reading selection is made of topics of general interest and relevance to learner at this level.

Few English speakers share of the accessibility of reading in other language, and judging from the popularity of reading courses. Many foreign learners of English also feel less that confident about reading English and make it as pleasures of reading literature.

PART OF READING            :

  • The psychological approach
  • Linguistic approach
  • The content-orientated approach
  • The pedagogically – orientated approach

Course which take the psychological approach to reading development claim to provide exercise or activities which train natural reading process and focus on take place in the mind of reader.

The majority of the exercise in thinking in English of reading skill are design to practice the psychological process specified by the author rather than drawing the learner’s attention to the meaning of the twenty reading text.


  • Understanding the writer implication
  • Making inferences
  • Realizing the information
  • Evaluating the passage

While the psychological approach focuses on the words and the sentences of the reading passage the assumption is that if the learners can handle linguistic feature of the text efficiently reading ability will be improved and exclusively linguistically orientated, this approach often influences a large proportion of the activities in a reading course.



The content – orientated approach is founded on the view that the purpose inherent in a particular act of reading is an essential feature and make the reader believe that a specific purpose for reading a would be goal – directed and efficient.



Pedagogic is a part of all good course design and all of published courses that mantion so far have pedagogic strengths in that theirs authors have corsidered such matters the length of the time students might wish to spend on a given accalvity, the entertaint ment quality of the activities and the interest value of the text.

According to the view, readers who are given some choice in the selection of their own reading materials and who can develop at their own rats will be more successful readers than those whose programme of study in directed by the teacher, the course book or administrator.



For approaches to the design of reading course have been identified and each of these approaches has its own characteristic.

The table below summarizes the focus of each approach:

Psychological The reader The psychological process
Linguistics The language of the text Linguistic knowledge
Content Meaning and use Reading for a purpose
Pedagogic Individual access Personal control


Whatever approach or selected, all good reading course must require the student to spend must of the time engaged in reading. It is cautionary to remember that any success that bright be claimed for a particular philosophy might be more simply attributed to the activity of reading.

Laughter is The Best Medicine

Laughter is the Best Medicine

Humor is infectious. The sound of roaring laughter is far more contagious than any cough, sniffle, or sneeze. When laughter is shared, it binds people together and increases happiness and intimacy. Laughter also triggers healthy physical changes in the body. Humor and laughter strengthen your immune system, boost your energy, diminish pain, and protect you from the damaging effects of stress. Best of all, this priceless medicine is fun, free, and easy to use. (Introduction)

Laughter is strong medicine for mind and body

“Your sense of humor is one of the most powerful tools you have to make certain that your daily mood and emotional state support good health.”

~ Paul E. McGhee, Ph.D.

Laughter is a powerful antidote to stress, pain, and conflict. Nothing works faster or more dependably to bring your mind and body back into balance than a good laugh. Humor lightens your burdens, inspires hopes, connects you to others, and keeps you grounded, focused, and alert.

With so much power to heal and renew, the ability to laugh easily and frequently is a tremendous resource for surmounting problems, enhancing your relationships, and supporting both physical and emotional health. (Main Idea)

Laughter is good for your health

  • Laughter relaxes the whole body. A good, hearty laugh relieves physical tension and stress, leaving your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after.
  • Laughter boosts the immune system. Laughter decreases stress hormones and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease.
  • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. Endorphins promote an overall sense of well-being and can even temporarily relieve pain.
  • Laughter protects the heart. Laughter improves the function of blood vessels and increases blood flow, which can help protect you against a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.

Laughter and humor help you stay emotionally healthy

Laughter makes you feel good. And the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter subsides. Humor helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

More than just a respite from sadness and pain, laughter gives you the courage and strength to find new sources of meaning and hope. Even in the most difficult of times, a laugh–or even simply a smile–can go a long way toward making you feel better. And laughter really is contagious—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun.

The social benefits of humor and laughter

Humor and playful communication strengthen our relationships by triggering positive feelings and fostering emotional connection. When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is created. This bond acts as a strong buffer against stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

Laughing with others is more powerful than laughing alone

Creating opportunities to laugh

  • Watch a funny movie or TV show.
  • Go to a comedy club.
  • Read the funny pages.
  • Seek out funny people.
  • Share a good joke or a funny story.
  • Check out your bookstore’s humor section.
  • Host game night with friends.
  • Play with a pet.
  • Go to a “laughter yoga” class.
  • Goof around with children.
  • Do something silly.
  • Make time for fun activities (e.g. bowling, miniature golfing, karaoke). (Thesis and Arguments)

Shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting. All emotional sharing builds strong and lasting relationship bonds, but sharing laughter and play also adds joy, vitality, and resilience. And humor is a powerful and effective way to heal resentments, disagreements, and hurts. Laughter unites people during difficult times.

Incorporating more humor and play into your daily interactions can improve the quality of your love relationships— as well as your connections with co-workers, family members, and friends. Using humor and laughter in relationships allows you to:

  • Be more spontaneous. Humor gets you out of your head and away from your troubles.
  • Let go of defensiveness. Laughter helps you forget judgments, criticisms, and doubts.
  • Release inhibitions. Your fear of holding back and holding on are set aside.
  • Express your true feelings. Deeply felt emotions are allowed to rise to the surface.

 Bringing more humor and laughter into your life

Want to bring the fun? Get a pet…

Most of us have experienced the joy of playing with a furry friend, and pets are a rewarding way to bring more laughter and joy into your life. But did you know that having a pet is also good for your mental and physical health? Studies show that pets can protect you depression, stress, and even heart disease. (Thesis and Arguments)

Laughter is your birthright, a natural part of life that is innate and inborn. Infants begin smiling during the first weeks of life and laugh out loud within months of being born. Even if you did not grow up in a household where laughter was a common sound, you can learn to laugh at any stage of life.

Begin by setting aside special times to seek out humor and laughter, as you might with working out, and build from there. Eventually, you’ll want to incorporate humor and laughter into the fabric of your life, finding it naturally in everything you do.

Here are some ways to start:

  • Smile. Smiling is the beginning of laughter. Like laughter, it’s contagious. Pioneers in “laugh therapy,” find it’s possible to laugh without even experiencing a funny event. The same holds for smiling. When you look at someone or see something even mildly pleasing, practice smiling.
  • Count your blessings. Literally make a list. The simple act of considering the good things in your life will distance you from negative thoughts that are a barrier to humor and laughter. When you’re in a state of sadness, you have further to travel to get to humor and laughter.
  • When you hear laughter, move toward it. Sometimes humor and laughter are private, a shared joke among a small group, but usually not. More often, people are very happy to share something funny because it gives them an opportunity to laugh again and feed off the humor you find in it. When you hear laughter, seek it out and ask, “What’s funny?”
  • Spend time with fun, playful people. These are people who laugh easily–both at themselves and at life’s absurdities–and who routinely find the humor in everyday events. Their playful point of view and laughter are contagious.
  • Bring humor into conversations. Ask people, “What’s the funniest thing that happened to you today? This week? In your life?”

Laugh is priceless medicine that everyone can do. It helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss. Also, it can make your life colorful, good in relation, and ageless. So, we can try to start, like smile, count your blessing, spend your life with fun, enjoy your life, and make sense of humor in your conversation daily.

Source :


Transitions function to connect one idea to another either between sentences or between paragraphs. They are signals that help readers follow the direction of the writer’s thoughts. The lists below categorizes transitional words and phrases according what they signify. Note that certain transitions appear on more than one list.


in addition
in the same way
at any rate
even so
in contrast
in spite of that
on the contrary
on the other hand
as a result
as a/in consequence
in conclusion
for this reason
to conclude
by comparison
in the same way
as an illustration
for example
for instance
in fact
in other words
in particular
that is
in a word
in brief
in short
in summary
to summarize


first(ly), second(ly), third(ly)…
above all
in conclusion
to illustrate
that is
of course


at the same time
before that
at this time
at present
these days
after that
in the future

When using transitions, keep in mind that there are subtle differences between transitional words and phrases on the same list. If you are unsure about the precise meaning of a particular word or phrase, consult your dictionary or ask your teacher. Also, while transitions do help to connect ideas in an essay, too many transitions can make writing seen overly formal or stilted. Certain transitions such as hence, moreover, thus, and subsequently may make your writing sound too formal or artificial, which can be distracting to a reader. Formal transitions should be avoided in personal writing and used judiciously even in formal writing.

Underline any transitional words or phrases in the following passages. Fill in the spaces below each passage with the transitions you find and identify what kind of signal they give.

A Chinese Housewife

In Chinese society a housewife should be thrifty in order to help her husband tosupport the family. First of all, she does her housework by herselfand doesn’t hire a maid to work with her. Secondly, when she goes shopping, she only spends money on daily necessities and not on junk food. The food which she buys should be healthy food and should not cost too much money. Finally, she can’t buy clothes often except when she has to go to a banquet. Mostly she makes her clothes herself and wears them at home. In this way, she saves money.

Transition                                     Signal

__________________                             __________________

__________________                             __________________

__________________                              __________________

__________________                             __________________

__________________                             __________________

Getting from JFK to Times Square

You’ve just landed in New York City and you need to get from John F. Kennedy International Airport to your hotel in Times Square. Well, there are three ways to get from the airport to the “Crossroads of the World.”
Option 1 – Public Transit

If you’re considering traveling on the cheap, taking public transit is fast and cheap. Plus, you’re doing something for environment.

From any terminal at JFK, you can take the JFK Airtrain, which is an elevated automated airport train, to Jamaica Station. Please make sure you hear the announcement “Station D: Jamaica Station.”

Once at Jamaica Station, exit the Airtrain and follow the directional signs to the New York City subway. Upon entering the subway, take the Manhattan-bound (westbound)”E” subway line (Blue Line on the subway map) from Sutphin Blvd-JFK/Jamaica Station to 42nd Street-Port Authority Bus Terminal.

Once at the Port Authority Bus Terminal, you can exit the subway and walk a block east along 42nd Street or use the underground connector between the Times Square subway station and the Bus Terminal.

Cost: The fare on the subway and Airtrain is $7.25 ($5 for the Airtrain and $2.25 for the subway when you purchase a pay-per ride MetroCard). You can purchase a $7.25 MetroCard at the Airtrain terminal in Jamaica and use it on both the Airtrain and and the subway.

Alternatively, you can just purchase an $5 MetroCard Single Ride ticket at the Airtrain terminal and purchase and unlimited ride MetroCard in the subway. The unlimited ride MetroCard range in price for $29 for a 7-day pass to $104 for a 30-day pass. If you’re in town for a week or more, I would recommend the 7-day unlimited for $29 for every week you’re in town.

Option 2 – Commuter Rail

If you want to get to Times Square faster and want to avoid the subway, you can always take the Long Island Railroad from Jamaica Station to Penn Station. The Long Island Railroad, or LIRR for short, is a commuter railroad that serves communities on Long Island and connects those communities with the city.

Getting to the LIRR from the airport is very easy.

From any terminal at JFK, you can take the Airtrain to Jamaica Station, again make sure you’re listen for the announcement “Station D: Jamaica Station.

Once at Jamaica Station, exit the Airtrain and follow the directional signs to the Long Island Railroad.

Purchase your LIRR ticket from the ticket machines on the pedestrian bridge overlooking the platforms and look at the display board on the pedestrian bridge for the next arriving train bound for Penn Station. It will tell you what track the next westbound train will arrive on, which is usually tracks 1, 2 or 3.

Once in the city, you can take the subway to Times Square or a taxi from Penn Station to Times Square. If you’re taking the subway from Penn Station, you can take the uptown (northbound) number 1, 2 or 3 subway lines (Red Line on the subway map) and get off at Times Square. The trip take about 1 to 2 minutes.

Cost: A one way off peak ticket from Jamaica Station to Penn Station on the LIRR will cost you $6.75. If you’re traveling on the weekends, you can purchase a CityTicket, which is a discounted weekend rail ticket for travel between LIRR stations in New York City for $3.75.

The fare on the subway is the $2.25 with a MetroCard ($2.50 with a Single Ride Ticket), while the fare on the Airtrain is $5. Purchasing a $7.25 MetroCard will cover the fare on both the Airtrain and the subway.

Option 3 – Road Transportation

Besides taking the subway or the LIRR, there are two ways to get to Times Square by road transportation.

If you’re taking a taxi from JFK to your hotel in Times Square, the fare is a flat $52 plus toll. You can avoid the toll and still pay the $52 fare by informing the driver to take the Queensboro Bridge instead. Crossing the Queensboro Bridge is free.

I always recommend taking an authorized taxi from a designated taxi stand at the airport. Never take a ride offered by a unauthorized taxi driver, that’s because they’re known for overcharging customer, specially international customer.

If you preferred to arrange a hired car service (aka a town car or limo service). There several companies you can call for them to arrange a door-to-door car services.

All New York City taxis and limousines are authorized to operate as such by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission (TLC).

Another way to get from JFK to Times Square is by an airport express bus. The New York Airport Service provides express bus service between JFK, LaGuardia and Midtown, Manhattan with stops at the Port Authority Bus Terminal, Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station.

For $15, you can take the NYAS from JFK to the Port Authority Bus Terminal and then walk or take a taxi from the Bus Terminal to your hotel.

So, whether it by subway, commuter rail or road transportation, there are several ways to get from JFK to Times Square.


(Taken from )




  1. If you want to get to Times Square from JFK airport in the cheapest way possible, what transportation would you take?
  2. How much would you have to spend if you took the subway and Airtrain to get to Times Square from JFK airport?
  3. What does the writer recommend if you want to get to Times Square from JFK by taxi?
  4. How much is will it cost if you choose to go to Times Square from JFK by using the commuter rail?
  5. How many main ways are there to get to Times Square from JFK?

Stated and Ustated Detail Question

Besides knowledge about kinds of text and its grammatical unsure, the ability for applying reading strategy also must be owned in order to comprehend the meaning from a text. There are many kinds of question which usually are given (dalam menguji) ability of reading comprehension, one of them is stated and unstated detail question.

Unstated Detail Question

Unstated detail question is unexpressed terms of the agreement/things left unsaid/unspoken agreement/the action is clear but the reason remains unstated in question. How to identify the question :

– Which of the following is not stated……?

– Which of the following is not mentioned…….?

– Which of the following is not discussed……..?

– All of the following are true except…..


We should note that there are two kinds of answer to this type of question

1. There are three true answers and one that is not true according to the passage, or

2. There are three true answers and one is not mentioned in the passage.


Because it’s not mentioned in the text, we have to :

1. Choose a key word in the question.

2. Scan the appropriate place in the passage for key word (or related idea).

3. Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea carefully.

4. Look for answers that are definitely true according to the passage.Eliminate those answers.

5. Choose the answer that is not true or not discussed in the passage.


The passage:

The Florida Keys are a beautiful chain of almost 1,000 coral and limestone islands These islands form an arc that heads first southwest and then west from the mainland. U.S. Highway 1, called the Overseas Highway connects the main islands in the chain. On this highway, it is necessary to cross 42 bridges over the ocean to cover the 159 miles from Miami on the mainland, to Key West the farthest island on the highway and the southernmost city in the United States.

(C) The Florida Keys are in the shape of an arc.
(D) The Florida Keys are not all inhabited.

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about U.S. Highway 1?

(A) It is also known as the Overseas Highway
(B) It joins all of the islands in the Florida Keys.
(C) It has more than 40 bridges
(D) It connects Miami and Key West


The first question asks for the one answer that is not mentioned about the Florida Keys. The passage states that the Florida Keys are a chain (answer A) with coral and limestone (answer B) in the shape of an arc (answer C), so these answers are not correct. The best answer is therefore answer (D). The passage does not discuss whether or not the keys are all inhabited.


The second question asks for the answer that is not true about U.S. Highway 1. The passage states that it is called the Overseas Highway (answer A), that it has 42 bridges (answer C), and that it cover(s) the 159 miles from Miami. . . to Key West (answer D), so these answers are not correct. The best answer is answer (B). The passage states that the Overseas Highway connects the main islands in the chain, so it does not connect all of the islands.